"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
Implementing Regulations at: 20 U.S.C. § 1681 & 34 C.F.R. Part 106

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is a federal law intended to end sex discrimination in all areas of education. It applies to:

  • non-discrimination based on gender, applicable to all recipients of federal funds, whether a public or a private institution
  • issues of program equity, including but not limited to athletics programs
  • sexual harassment and sexual assault


Governmental Enforcement

Title IX is enforced by the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) of the U.S. Department of Education. OCR has authority to develop policy on the regulations it enforces. In regard to athletics programs, OCR developed an Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Interpretation that was issued December 11, 1979, 44 Fed. Reg. 71413 et seq (1979). The 1979 Policy Interpretation remains current policy. In general, courts defer to the policies of the agencies with enforcement authority.


Additional Resources